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寻找,就寻见——未知病原体?
Seek and You Shall Find — Unknown Pathogens?


Nikos Vasilakis ... 其他 • 2019.05.30
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• 中国新发现的一种与人类发热性疾病相关的分节段病毒

过去10年间,由于下一代测序等新技术的出现,病毒发现工作又出现了一个高潮;这些技术大大加快了在各种宿主中发现新病毒的步伐1-4。新发现病毒的剧增给病毒学家、流行病学家、分类学家和进化生物学家带来了机遇和挑战。获得完整基因组序列的成本不断下降,因此使我们可以改进病毒分类、病毒系统发育和进化关系分析以及(重要的是)病毒对人类和动物群体的潜在风险评估5,6

黄病毒科病毒具有单链正义RNA基因组、广泛的宿主(包括脊椎动物和无脊椎动物)和广泛的地理分布(除南极洲外,世界各地均有分布)。这些病毒在人类和动物群体中引起重要的致病表现。黄病毒科病毒分成四个属(黄病毒属、丙型肝炎病毒属、瘟病毒属和PEG病毒[pegivirus]属),这一分类方法直到最近才做出更改,而经验证的无脊椎动物宿主只有蚊子和蜱。节肢动物传播的黄病毒科病毒都属于黄病毒属。虽然这些病毒之间存在广泛差异,但它们在基因组结构、病毒粒子形态和生命周期方面有着重要的相似性。过去几年从蜱和其他昆虫8,9中分离出了多种分节段病毒(有4或5个节段),并被命名为荆门病毒。这群病毒与黄病毒属病毒有明显的亲缘关系,这对它们在脊椎动物宿主中导致致病表现的潜力具有重要意义。此外,荆门病毒揭示出RNA病毒的分节段是在以前未曾预料到的环境中发生的一个进化过程8





作者信息

Nikos Vasilakis, Ph.D., and David H. Walker, M.D.
From the Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Center for Tropical Diseases, and the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.

 

参考文献

1. Shi M, Lin XD, Tian JH, et al. Redefining the invertebrate RNA virosphere. Nature 2016;540:539-543.

2. Marklewitz M, Zirkel F, Kurth A, Drosten C, Junglen S. Evolutionary and phenotypic analysis of live virus isolates suggests arthropod origin of a pathogenic RNA virus family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015;112:7536-7541.

3. Roux S, Brum JR, Dutilh BE, et al. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses. Nature 2016;537:689-693.

4. Shi M, Lin XD, Chen X, et al. The evolutionary history of vertebrate RNA viruses. Nature 2018;556:197-202.

5. Geoghegan JL, Holmes EC. The phylogenomics of evolving virus virulence. Nat Rev Genet 2018;19:756-769.

6. Zhang YZ, Shi M, Holmes EC. Using metagenomics to characterize an expanding virosphere. Cell 2018;172:1168-1172.

7. Qin XC, Shi M, Tian JH, et al. A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014;111:6744-6749.

8. Shi M, Lin XD, Vasilakis N, et al. Divergent viruses discovered in arthropods and vertebrates revise the evolutionary history of the Flaviviridae and related viruses. J Virol 2015;90:659-669.

9. Ladner JT, Wiley MR, Beitzel B, et al. A multicomponent animal virus isolated from mosquitoes. Cell Host Microbe 2016;20:357-367.

10. Wang Z-D, Wang B, Wei F, et al. A new segmented virus associated with human febrile illness in China. N Engl J Med 2019;380:2116-2125.

11. Beard CB, Occi J, Bonilla DL, et al. Multistate infestation with the exotic disease–vector tick Haemaphysalis longicornis — United States, August 2017–September 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1310-1313.

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