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缺铁性贫血
Iron-Deficiency Anemia


Clara Camaschella ... 其他 • 2015.05.07

铁缺乏症和缺铁性贫血是全球健康问题,也是日常临床实践中常见的病症。虽然缺铁性贫血的患病率最近有所下降,但铁缺乏症仍是全球贫血的首要原因,无论是低收入国家还是发达国家,缺铁性贫血都极大地影响着幼儿和绝经前女性的生活1。这种病的诊断和治疗明显可以改进。

铁对于呼吸、能量生成、DNA合成和细胞增殖等各种生物学功能至关重要2。人体经过进化,已可以通过多种方式储备铁,包括红细胞降解后的铁再循环和没有排泄机制时的铁保留。然而由于过量的铁可能有毒,因此铁的吸收量仅有每日1~2 mg,而且每日所需的大部分铁(约25 mg)由铁的再循环提供,再循环是通过吞噬衰老红细胞的巨噬细胞完成的。红细胞降解后的铁再循环和没有排泄机制时的铁保留由铁调素这种激素控制,其功能是使体内的铁维持在正常范围内,避免铁缺乏和过量。

铁缺乏症是指在明显缺铁性贫血出现之前铁储备的减少,或铁储备减少持续但未出现进展。缺铁性贫血与铁缺乏症相比严重程度更高,因为低水平的铁与贫血和小细胞低色素性红细胞的出现有关。





作者信息

Clara Camaschella, M.D.
From Vita Salute University and San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan. Address reprint requests to Dr. Camaschella at Vita Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina, 58, 20132 Milan, Italy, or at camaschella.clara@hsr.it.

 

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