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儿童病毒性毛细支气管炎
Viral Bronchiolitis in Children


H. Cody Meissner ... 其他 • 2016.01.07

病毒性下呼吸道疾病几乎是对幼儿的健康影响最大的疾病。美国大约有80万名儿童(即年度出生队列中的大约20%)由于呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)引发的疾病在1岁以内需要门诊就医1。在所有12月龄以内的婴儿中,有2%~3%因诊断为毛细支气管炎住院,每年住院人数5.7万~17.2万例1-4。2009年全美国2岁以下婴幼儿毛细支气管炎相关治疗的住院费用估计超过17亿美元5。全球范围内,2005年仅RSV就导致6.6万~19.9万例5岁以下儿童死亡,资源匮乏的国家死亡病例占比明显高于其他国家6,7。相比之下,在美国由RSV引发的毛细支气管炎导致每年不到100例患病幼儿死亡8

这篇综述介绍了目前对毛细支气管炎的了解(其中包括了数量越来越多的已知会引发毛细支气管炎的病毒),目前对其发病机制的了解、环境和宿主遗传因素的重要性以及季节、种族和性别在毛细支气管炎罹患率和随后的喘息发作中所起到的作用。此外,还总结了美国儿科学会 (American Academy of Pediatrics)关于毛细支气管炎的诊断、管理和预防的指南9,10





作者信息

H. Cody Meissner, M.D.
From Tufts University School of Medicine and the Department of Pediatrics, Tufts Medical Center — both in Boston. Address reprint requests to Dr. Meissner at Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St., Boston, MA 02111, or at cmeissner@tuftsmedicalcenter.org.

 

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