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精神分裂症
Schizophrenia


Stephen R. Marder ... 其他 • 2019.10.31
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精神分裂症是一种精神病综合征,其典型表现是幻觉、妄想和言语紊乱等精神病症状,动机下降和表达能力下降等阴性症状,以及执行功能、记忆力和心理处理速度下降等认知缺陷。全世界有近1%的人患精神分裂症,精神分裂症是全球范围内使人失能的十大原因之一1。然而,精神分裂症患者在日常生活功能方面有很大差异,一些人严重失能,另外一些人可达到较高功能。

 

精神分裂症的初始表现


精神分裂症的最初迹象通常出现在十八九岁和二十岁出头,但后来发生精神分裂症的部分儿童有社交障碍、身体笨拙、智商低于兄弟姐妹在类似年龄时的水平。精神病发病之前,患者通常有持续数月至数年的行为细微变化和功能下降,这一时期被称为精神病前驱期。典型例子是高中生或大学生变得与社会隔离,形成奇怪的信仰或有知觉异常(如听到窃窃私语声),以及学业成绩下降。患者本人或其家人一般会在患者开始自诉听到声音或坚信妄想信念后就医。





作者信息

Stephen R. Marder, M.D., and Tyrone D. Cannon, Ph.D.
From the Section on Psychosis, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Veterans Affairs Desert Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Los Angeles (S.R.M.); and the Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT (T.D.C.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Marder at the West Los Angeles VA Healthcare Center, 11301 Wilshire Blvd., Bldg. 210, Rm. 130, Los Angeles, CA 90073, or at marder@ucla.edu.

 

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