提示: 手机请竖屏浏览!

咖啡、咖啡因与健康的关系
Coffee, Caffeine, and Health


Rob M. van Dam ... 其他 • 2020.07.23
相关阅读
• 咖啡、茶与心脏健康 • 咖啡可成为健康饮食的一部分

咖啡和茶都属于世界上最流行的饮料,并含有大量咖啡因,因此使咖啡因成为最广泛摄入的精神活性物质1。许多植物的种子、果实和叶子中都含有咖啡因。除咖啡和茶之外,含有咖啡因的植物还包括可可豆(巧克力的成分)、耶巴马黛茶(yerba matte)叶(用于制作花草茶)和瓜拉那浆果(用于各种饮料和补充剂)1,2。咖啡因也可人工合成并添加到食物和饮料中(例如软饮料、能量饮料和小瓶高浓度能量饮料[energy shot]),还可添加到用于减轻疲劳的药片中2。此外,咖啡因被广泛用于治疗早产儿呼吸暂停3,咖啡因还可与镇痛药一起制成止痛药物4

咖啡和茶已经有几百年的饮用历史,已经成为文化传统和社会生活的重要组成部分5。此外,人们还喝咖啡提高大脑灵敏度和工作效率。咖啡因常见来源的咖啡因含量见表1。对于通常的一份用量,咖啡、能量饮料和咖啡因片的咖啡因含量最高;茶的咖啡因含量居中;软饮料的咖啡因含量最低。美国有85%的成人每日摄入咖啡因6,每日平均摄入量为135 mg,相当于约一杯半咖啡(这里指的是标准杯,一杯等于8液量盎司[235 mL])7。咖啡是成人摄入咖啡因的主要来源,而软饮料和茶是青少年摄入咖啡因的主要来源(图1)。

 

表1. 美国常见食物、饮料和非处方药中咖啡因含量*

* 资料来自FoodData Central 2

† 将液量盎司转换为mL需乘以29.57。将盎司巧克力转换为g需乘以28.35。

‡ 表中列出的是常见功能饮料和小瓶高浓度功能饮料的咖啡因含量,但不同饮料可能有所不同,尤其是品牌不同的情况下。

 

图1. 美国青少年和中年人的咖啡因来源和平均日摄入量

数据来自2011—2012年的美国全国健康和营养调查(National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys)7。图A显示了青少年的咖啡因来源和日摄入量,图B显示了35~49岁成人的咖啡因来源和摄入量。

 

长期以来,人们一直担心咖啡和咖啡因可能会增加患癌症和心血管疾病的风险,但最近也出现了咖啡和咖啡因对健康有益的证据8。咖啡因和咖啡研究中的一个关键问题是咖啡还含有其他数百种具有生物活性的植物化学物质,包括多酚(例如绿原酸和木脂素)、生物碱葫芦巴碱、烘焙过程中形成的类黑精(melanoidins)以及少量镁、钾和维生素B3(烟酸)8。咖啡中的这些化合物可减轻氧化应激9,改善肠道微生物群10,并且调节葡萄糖和脂肪代谢11,12。而未过滤的咖啡中含有的二萜咖啡醇会提高血清胆固醇水平13。因此,对于咖啡和咖啡因的其他膳食来源,我们应谨慎解读研究结果,因为其效应可能并非由咖啡因本身所产生。





作者信息

Rob M. van Dam, Ph.D., Frank B. Hu, M.D., Ph.D., and Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr.P.H.
From the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore (R.M.V.D.); and the Departments of Nutrition (R.M.V.D., F.B.H., W.C.W.) and Epidemiology (F.B.H., W.C.W.), Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and the Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School (F.B.H., W.C.W.) — both in Boston. Address reprint requests to Dr. van Dam at the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Tahir Foundation, Bldg. 12, Science Drive 2, Singapore 117549, Singapore, or at rob.van.dam@nus.edu.sg.

 

参考文献

1. Fredholm BB, Bättig K, Holmén J, Nehlig A, Zvartau EE. Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacol Rev 1999;51:83-133.

2. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. FoodData Central (https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/. opens in new tab).

3. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, et al. Long-term effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1893-1902.

4. Derry CJ, Derry S, Moore RA. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;12:CD009281-CD009281.

5. Pomeranz K, Topik S. The world that trade created: society, culture, and the world economy, 1400 to the present. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2006.

6. Mitchell DC, Knight CA, Hockenberry J, Teplansky R, Hartman TJ. Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S. Food Chem Toxicol 2014;63:136-142.

7. Drewnowski A, Rehm CD. Sources of caffeine in diets of US children and adults: trends by beverage type and purchase location. Nutrients 2016;8:154-154.

8. Ludwig IA, Clifford MN, Lean MEJ, Ashihara H, Crozier A. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health. Food Funct 2014;5:1695-1717.

9. Corrêa TAF, Monteiro MP, Mendes TMN, et al. Medium light and medium roast paper-filtered coffee increased antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers: results of a randomized trial. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2012;67:277-282.

10. Jaquet M, Rochat I, Moulin J, Cavin C, Bibiloni R. Impact of coffee consumption on the gut microbiota: a human volunteer study. Int J Food Microbiol 2009;130:117-121.

11. Vitaglione P, Morisco F, Mazzone G, et al. Coffee reduces liver damage in a rat model of steatohepatitis: the underlying mechanisms and the role of polyphenols and melanoidins. Hepatology 2010;52:1652-1661.

12. Lecoultre V, Carrel G, Egli L, et al. Coffee consumption attenuates short-term fructose-induced liver insulin resistance in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99:268-275.

13. Urgert R, Katan MB. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans. Annu Rev Nutr 1997;17:305-324.

14. Nehlig A. Interindividual differences in caffeine metabolism and factors driving caffeine consumption. Pharmacol Rev 2018;70:384-411.

15. Perera V, Gross AS, McLachlan AJ. Influence of environmental and genetic factors on CYP1A2 activity in individuals of South Asian and European ancestry. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2012;92:511-519.

16. Cornelis MC, Kacprowski T, Menni C, et al. Genome-wide association study of caffeine metabolites provides new insights to caffeine metabolism and dietary caffeine-consumption behavior. Hum Mol Genet 2016;25:5472-5482.

17. Cornelis MC, Byrne EM, Esko T, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies six novel loci associated with habitual coffee consumption. Mol Psychiatry 2015;20:647-656.

18. McLellan TM, Caldwell JA, Lieberman HR. A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2016;71:294-312.

19. Clark I, Landolt HP. Coffee, caffeine, and sleep: a systematic review of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials. Sleep Med Rev 2017;31:70-78.

20. Lara DR. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders. J Alzheimers Dis 2010;20:Suppl 1:S239-S248.

21. Qi H, Li S. Dose-response meta-analysis on coffee, tea and caffeine consumption with risk of Parkinson’s disease. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014;14:430-439.

22. Kang D, Kim Y, Je Y. Non-alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of depression: epidemiological evidence from observational studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 2018;72:1506-1516.

23. Welsh EJ, Bara A, Barley E, Cates CJ. Caffeine for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;1:CD001112-CD001112.

24. Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Buchanan R, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J. Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of cirrhosis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2016;43:562-574.

25. Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Buchanan R, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J. Coffee, including caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2017;7(5):e013739-e013739.

26. Wijarnpreecha K, Thongprayoon C, Ungprasert P. Coffee consumption and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017;29(2):e8-e12.

27. Chen L-W, Wu Y, Neelakantan N, Chong MF-F, Pan A, van Dam RM. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with risk of low birth weight: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. BMC Med 2014;12:174-174.

28. Chen L-W, Wu Y, Neelakantan N, Chong MF-F, Pan A, van Dam RM. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of pregnancy loss: a categorical and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Public Health Nutr 2016;19:1233-1244.

29. Armstrong LE, Pumerantz AC, Roti MW, et al. Fluid, electrolyte, and renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005;15:252-265.

30. Robertson D, Wade D, Workman R, Woosley RL, Oates JA. Tolerance to the humoral and hemodynamic effects of caffeine in man. J Clin Invest 1981;67:1111-1117.

31. Greer F, Hudson R, Ross R, Graham T. Caffeine ingestion decreases glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in sedentary humans. Diabetes 2001;50:2349-2354.

32. Alperet DJ, Rebello SA, Khoo EY-H, et al. The effect of coffee consumption on insulin sensitivity and other biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2020;111:448-458.

33. Smith A. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1243-1255.

34. Ker K, Edwards PJ, Felix LM, Blackhall K, Roberts I. Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;5:CD008508-CD008508.

35. Doty TJ, So CJ, Bergman EM, et al. Limited efficacy of caffeine and recovery costs during and following 5 days of chronic sleep restriction. Sleep 2017;40(12).

36. Fulton JL, Dinas PC, Carrillo AE, Edsall JR, Ryan EJ, Ryan EJ. Impact of genetic variability on physiological responses to caffeine in humans: a systematic review. Nutrients 2018;10:1373-1373.

37. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies. Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine. EFSA J 2015;13(5):4102-4102.

38. Juliano LM, Griffiths RR. A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;176:1-29.

39. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Highly concentrated caffeine in dietary supplements: guidance for industry. College Park, MD: Food and Drug Administration, April 2018 (https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/UCM604319.pdf. opens in new tab).

40. Jones AW. Review of caffeine-related fatalities along with postmortem blood concentrations in 51 poisoning deaths. J Anal Toxicol 2017;41:167-172.

41. Cappelletti S, Piacentino D, Fineschi V, Frati P, Cipolloni L, Aromatario M. Caffeine-related deaths: manner of deaths and categories at risk. Nutrients 2018;10:611-611.

42. Ehlers A, Marakis G, Lampen A, Hirsch-Ernst KI. Risk assessment of energy drinks with focus on cardiovascular parameters and energy drink consumption in Europe. Food Chem Toxicol 2019;130:109-121.

43. Kim Y, Je Y, Giovannucci E. Coffee consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a meta-analysis by potential modifiers. Eur J Epidemiol 2019;34:731-752.

44. Cornelis MC, Munafo MR. Mendelian randomization studies of coffee and caffeine consumption. Nutrients 2018;10:1343-1343.

45. Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, et al. Reproducibility and validity of food intake measurements from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93:790-796.

46. Lovallo WR, Wilson MF, Vincent AS, Sung BH, McKey BS, Whitsett TL. Blood pressure response to caffeine shows incomplete tolerance after short-term regular consumption. Hypertension 2004;43:760-765.

47. Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CSPM, Arends LR, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2005;23:921-928.

48. Steffen M, Kuhle C, Hensrud D, Erwin PJ, Murad MH. The effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure and the development of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens 2012;30:2245-2254.

49. Mesas AE, Leon-Muñoz LM, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E. The effect of coffee on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:1113-1126.

50. Onakpoya IJ, Spencer EA, Thompson MJ, Heneghan CJ. The effect of chlorogenic acid on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Hum Hypertens 2015;29:77-81.

51. Grosso G, Micek A, Godos J, et al. Long-term coffee consumption is associated with decreased incidence of new-onset hypertension: a dose-response meta-analysis. Nutrients 2017;9:890-890.

52. Jee SH, He J, Appel LJ, Whelton PK, Suh I, Klag MJ. Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:353-362.

53. Silverman MG, Ference BA, Im K, et al. Association between lowering LDL-C and cardiovascular risk reduction among different therapeutic interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2016;316:1289-1297.

54. Zuchinali P, Ribeiro PA, Pimentel M, da Rosa PR, Zimerman LI, Rohde LE. Effect of caffeine on ventricular arrhythmia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental and clinical studies. Europace 2016;18:257-266.

55. Larsson SC, Drca N, Jensen-Urstad M, Wolk A. Coffee consumption is not associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation: results from two prospective cohorts and a meta-analysis. BMC Med 2015;13:207-207.

56. Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation 2014;129:643-659.

57. Harpaz E, Tamir S, Weinstein A, Weinstein Y. The effect of caffeine on energy balance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2017;28:1-10.

58. Velickovic K, Wayne D, Leija HAL, et al. Caffeine exposure induces browning features in adipose tissue in vitro and in vivo. Sci Rep 2019;9:9104-9104.

59. Dulloo AG, Geissler CA, Horton T, Collins A, Miller DS. Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:44-50.

60. Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Rajpathak S, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB. Changes in caffeine intake and long-term weight change in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:674-680.

61. Larsen SC, Mikkelsen M-L, Frederiksen P, Heitmann BL. Habitual coffee consumption and changes in measures of adiposity: a comprehensive study of longitudinal associations. Int J Obes (Lond) 2018;42:880-886.

62. Ohnaka K, Ikeda M, Maki T, et al. Effects of 16-week consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee on glucose metabolism in a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr Metab 2012;2012:207426-207426.

63. de Ruyter JC, Olthof MR, Seidell JC, Katan MB. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children. N Engl J Med 2012;367:1397-1406.

64. Keijzers GB, De Galan BE, Tack CJ, Smits P. Caffeine can decrease insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes Care 2002;25:364-369.

65. Wedick NM, Brennan AM, Sun Q, Hu FB, Mantzoros CS, van Dam RM. Effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 2011;10:93-93.

66. Carlström M, Larsson SC. Coffee consumption and reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Nutr Rev 2018;76:395-417.

67. Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BKH. Anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic effects of chlorogenic acid are mediated by AMPK activation. Biochem Pharmacol 2013;85:1341-1351.

68. Wang A, Wang S, Zhu C, et al. Coffee and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Sci Rep 2016;6:33711-33711.

69. Drinking coffee, mate, and very hot beverages. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 116. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2018.

70. Micek A, Godos J, Lafranconi A, Marranzano M, Pajak A. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2018;69:417-426.

71. Caini S, Cattaruzza MS, Bendinelli B, et al. Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: a review of the literature and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr 2017;56:1-12.

72. Lafranconi A, Micek A, De Paoli P, et al. Coffee intake decreases risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis on prospective cohort studies. Nutrients 2018;10:112-112.

73. Xia J, Chen J, Xue J-X, Yang J, Wang Z-J. An up-to-date meta-analysis of coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer. Urol J 2017;14:4079-4088.

74. Lafranconi A, Micek A, Galvano F, et al. Coffee decreases the risk of endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nutrients 2017;9:1223-1223.

75. Chan ESL, Montesinos MC, Fernandez P, et al. Adenosine A(2A) receptors play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis. Br J Pharmacol 2006;148:1144-1155.

76. Klemmer I, Yagi S, Gressner OA. Oral application of 1,7-dimethylxanthine (paraxanthine) attenuates the formation of experimental cholestatic liver fibrosis. Hepatol Res 2011;41:1094-1109.

77. Hosaka S, Kawa S, Aoki Y, et al. Hepatocarcinogenesis inhibition by caffeine in ACI rats treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene. Food Chem Toxicol 2001;39:557-561.

78. Cardin R, Piciocchi M, Martines D, Scribano L, Petracco M, Farinati F. Effects of coffee consumption in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial. Dig Liver Dis 2013;45:499-504.

79. Zhang Y-P, Li W-Q, Sun Y-L, Zhu R-T, Wang W-J. Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of gallstone disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015;42:637-648.

80. Larsson SC, Giovannucci EL, Wolk A. Coffee consumption and risk of gallbladder cancer in a prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2017;109:1-3.

81. Lillemoe KD, Magnuson TH, High RC, Peoples GE, Pitt HA. Caffeine prevents cholesterol gallstone formation. Surgery 1989;106:400-407.

82. Douglas BR, Jansen JB, Tham RT, Lamers CB. Coffee stimulation of cholecystokinin release and gallbladder contraction in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:553-556.

83. Ferraro PM, Taylor EN, Gambaro G, Curhan GC. Soda and other beverages and the risk of kidney stones. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2013;8:1389-1395.

84. Xu K, Di Luca DG, Orrú M, Xu Y, Chen J-F, Schwarzschild MA. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors. Neuroscience 2016;322:129-137.

85. Lucas M, O’Reilly EJ, Pan A, et al. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of completed suicide: results from three prospective cohorts of American adults. World J Biol Psychiatry 2014;15:377-386.

86. Tanskanen A, Tuomilehto J, Viinamäki H, Vartiainen E, Lehtonen J, Puska P. Heavy coffee drinking and the risk of suicide. Eur J Epidemiol 2000;16:789-791.

87. Larsson SC, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Nutrients 2018;10:1501-1501.

88. Loftfield E, Cornelis MC, Caporaso N, Yu K, Sinha R, Freedman N. Association of coffee drinking with mortality by genetic variation in caffeine metabolism: findings from the UK Biobank. JAMA Intern Med 2018;178:1086-1097.

89. Freedman ND, Park Y, Abnet CC, Hollenbeck AR, Sinha R. Association of coffee drinking with total and cause-specific mortality. N Engl J Med 2012;366:1891-1904.

90. Tamakoshi A, Lin Y, Kawado M, et al. Effect of coffee consumption on all-cause and total cancer mortality: findings from the JACC study. Eur J Epidemiol 2011;26:285-293.

91. Park SY, Freedman ND, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations. Ann Intern Med 2017;167:228-235.

92. Chen L-W, Fitzgerald R, Murrin CM, Mehegan J, Kelleher CC, Phillips CM. Associations of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes: results from the Lifeways Cross Generation Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2018;108:1301-1308.

93. Gaskins AJ, Rich-Edwards JW, Williams PL, Toth TL, Missmer SA, Chavarro JE. Pre-pregnancy caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and risk of spontaneous abortion. Eur J Nutr 2018;57:107-117.

94. Bech BH, Obel C, Henriksen TB, Olsen J. Effect of reducing caffeine intake on birth weight and length of gestation: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2007;334:409-409.

95. Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2015-2020. 8th ed. Washington, DC: Department of Agriculture, December 2015 (https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf. opens in new tab).

服务条款 | 隐私政策 | 联系我们