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特应性皮炎
Atopic Dermatitis


Sonja Ständer ... 其他 • 2021.03.25
相关阅读
• abrocitinib、安慰剂或度普利尤单抗治疗特应性皮炎的比较 • nemolizumab并用外用药治疗特应性皮炎伴瘙痒的试验

特应性皮炎是最常见的炎症性皮肤病之一。它通常于儿童期发病,并可能持续到成年期;少数病例在中年或老年才发病。该病的特点是反复发作的瘙痒性局部湿疹,常有季节性波动。许多患者还患变应性哮喘、变应性鼻结膜炎、食物过敏和其他速发型超敏反应(1型)。该病在20世纪30年代被描述和命名为特应性皮炎,“特应性”来自希腊单词atopos(“异位”),现指常伴发哮喘等IgE介导的超敏反应1。特应性皮炎仍然是该病的首选术语,也有另外几个名称在使用,包括特应性湿疹、神经性皮炎、特异性皮炎以及最常用的湿疹。

 

流行病学特征


特应性皮炎的患病率和发病率在过去几十年间有所上升2,3。全球疾病负担(Global Burden of Disease)研究表明,特应性皮炎的儿童患病率为15%~20%,成人患病率最高达10%,因此它是排在第15位的最常见非致死性疾病,根据失能调整生命年计算,它也是疾病负担最高的皮肤病4。在一项回顾性研究中,特应性皮炎患者的医疗服务使用率和每年治疗费用均高于未患特应性皮炎的匹配对照组患者,且上述两项均与疾病严重程度相关5。男女都可患该病,而且患病率因人种和族群而异6,7。例如,在美国,黑种人儿童的患病率(19.3%)高于白种人儿童(16.1%)8。高收入和工业化国家的发病率上升被暂时归因于环境因素,如暴露于空气污染和家庭卫生用品。





作者信息

Sonja Ständer, M.D.
From the Department of Dermatology and Center for Chronic Pruritus (KCP), University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany. Address reprint requests to Dr. Ständer at the Department of Dermatology and Center for Chronic Pruritus (KCP), University Hospital Münster, Von-Esmarch-Str. 58, Münster, Germany 48149, or at sonja.staender@ukmuenster.de.

 

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