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HIV感染的筛查、诊断和治疗
HIV Infection — Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment


Michael S. Saag ... 其他 • 2021.06.03
相关阅读
• 首创新型HIV衣壳抑制剂

本刊的这一栏目首先提供一份强调某一常见临床难题的病例摘要,然后提出支持各种策略的证据。如果有正式指南,作者接下来会对其进行综述。文章以作者的临床建议结尾。

 

一名28岁女性在一起机动车相撞事故后被送到急诊。她除桡骨骨折外无其他临床明显损伤。尿检显示阿片类药物和大麻呈阳性。作为普遍筛查计划的一部分,她接受了人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)检测,结果呈阳性。患者单身,异性恋,自诉未注射毒品,但偶尔会用性交易换取毒品。她之前未接受过HIV检测。除轻度淋巴细胞减少外,该患者的其他常规实验室检查结果正常。您将如何进一步评估和治疗患者?

 

临床难题


20世纪80年代初首次发现获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)时,人们曾认为其传播范围仅限于少数高危人群1。随着对HIV流行病学的了解逐渐增多,显然HIV感染的传播方式主要是性、血液(包括注射毒品)和母婴传播2。在美国,HIV 1型(HIV-1)是主要流行的病毒,而HIV 2型(HIV-2)在世界其他地区(如西非)流行。





作者信息

Michael S. Saag, M.D.
From the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham. Address reprint requests to Dr. Saag at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, 845 19th St. South, Bevill Biomedical Research Bldg. 256, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170, or at msaag@uabmc.edu.

 

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