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SARS-CoV-2变异株和疫情控制工作的相互影响
Interplay between Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Pandemic Control


Kathleen M. Neuzil ... 呼吸系统疾病 其他 • 2021.05.20
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SARS-CoV-2是非分段包膜RNA病毒多样化家族的成员。冠状病毒基因组RNA异常大,RNA聚合酶容易出错,且突变在感染过程中以越来越高的频率逐渐累积。随着持续发生的失控传播和病毒复制,病毒具备适应性优势的突变将会出现。引起关注的SARS-CoV-2变异株所携带的一个或多个突变使其具有令人担忧的流行病学、免疫学或致病特征1

从疫情早期开始,南非就一直是大力应用基因组测序来识别和追踪新出现的SARS-CoV-2突变的全球引领者。据推测,在刺突蛋白中检出的关键突变是在病毒广泛和长期复制以及在宿主体内演化的条件下出现2。最早在南非发现的B.1.351变异株的传播性增强,恢复期血清和接种疫苗后血清对其的中和作用显著减弱,单克隆抗体对其的中和作用也显著减弱3,4





作者信息

Kathleen M. Neuzil, M.D., M.P.H.
From the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

 

参考文献

1. Science Brief: emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021 (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/science-and-research/scientific-brief-emerging-variants.html. opens in new tab).

2. Tegally H, Wilkinson E, Giovanetti M, et al. Emergence of a SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern with mutations in spike glycoprotein. Nature 2021 March 9 (Epub ahead of print).

3. Wang P, Nair MS, Liu L, et al. Antibody resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.351 and B.1.1.7. February 12, 2021 (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.25.428137v3. opens in new tab). preprint.

4. Zhou D, Dejnirattisai W, Supasa P, et al. Evidence of escape of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 from natural and vaccine-induced sera. Cell 2021 February 23 (Epub ahead of print).

5. Madhi SA, Baillie V, Cutland CL, et al. Efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Covid-19 vaccine against the B.1.351 variant. N Engl J Med 2021;384:1885-1898.

6. Shinde V, Bhikha S, Hoosain Z, et al. Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 vaccine against the B.1.351 variant. N Engl J Med 2021;384:1899-1909.

7. Rapaka RR, Hammershaimb EA, Neuzil KM. Are some COVID vaccines better than others? Interpreting and comparing estimates of efficacy in trials of COVID-19 vaccines. Clin Infect Dis 2021 March 6 (Epub ahead of print).

8. Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, et al. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet 2021;397:99-111.

9. European Medicines Agency. AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine: EMA finds possible link to very rare cases of unusual blood clots with low blood platelets. 2021 (https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/news/astrazenecas-covid-19-vaccine-ema-finds-possible-link-very-rare-cases-unusual-blood-clots-low-blood. opens in new tab).

10. Novavax and Takeda finalize license agreement for Novavax’ COVID-19 vaccine candidate in Japan, Takeda initiates phase 1/2 trial in Japan. Novavax. February 26, 2021 (https://ir.novavax.com/node/15611/pdf. opens in new tab).

11. Sadoff J, Gray G, Vandebosch A, et al. Safety and efficacy of single-dose Ad26.COV2.S vaccine against Covid-19. N Engl J Med. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2101544.

12. Pfizer and BioNTech confirm high efficacy and no serious safety concerns through up to six months following second dose in updated topline analysis of landmark COVID-19 vaccine study. Pfizer, New York, April 1, 2021 (https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-confirm-high-efficacy-and-no-serious. opens in new tab) (press release).

13. Ortiz JR, Robertson J, Hsu JS, et al. The potential effects of deploying SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on cold storage capacity and immunization workload in countries of the WHO African Region. Vaccine 2021;39:2165-2176.

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