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COVID-19疫苗对B.1.617.2(delta)变异株的预防效果
Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant


Jamie Lopez Bernal ... 传染病 呼吸系统疾病 • 2021.08.12
相关阅读
• SARS-CoV-2变异株和疫苗 • SARS-CoV-2变异株和疫情控制工作的相互影响

摘要


背景

SARS-CoV-2的B.1.617.2(delta)变异株导致印度病例数激增,而且目前已在世界各地发现,包括英国的病例数也大幅增加。BNT162b2和ChAdOx1 nCoV-19疫苗对该变异株的预防效果尚不明确。

 

方法

我们应用检测阴性病例对照设计估算了在delta变异株开始流行的一段时间内,接种疫苗对delta变异株或主要毒株(B.1.1.7,或alpha变异株)所致有症状疾病的预防效果。我们通过测序,根据刺突蛋白(S)基因状态鉴定变异株。根据患者的疫苗接种状态,应用英国所有有症状且已测序的COVID-19病例的数据估算感染任一变异株的病例比例。

 

结果

接种一剂疫苗(BNT162b2或ChAdOx1 nCoV-19)对delta变异株(30.7%;95%置信区间[CI],25.2~35.7)的预防效果明显低于对alpha变异株(48.7%;95% CI,45.5~51.7)的预防效果;两种疫苗的结果相似。接种两剂BNT162b2疫苗对alpha变异株的预防效果为93.7%(95% CI,91.6~95.3),对delta变异株的预防效果为88.0%(95% CI,85.3~90.1)。接种两剂ChAdOx1 nCoV-19疫苗对alpha变异株的预防效果为74.5%(95% CI,68.4~79.4),对delta变异株的预防效果为67.0%(95% CI,61.3~71.8)。

 

结论

接种两剂疫苗后,疫苗对delta变异株与alpha变异株的预防效果仅有很小差异。接种一剂疫苗后的疫苗效果绝对差异较为明显。这一结果促使我们努力提高脆弱人群的两剂疫苗接种率(由英国公共卫生局[Public Health England]资助)。





作者信息

Jamie Lopez Bernal, F.F.P.H., Ph.D., Nick Andrews, Ph.D., Charlotte Gower, D.Phil., Eileen Gallagher, Ph.D., Ruth Simmons, Ph.D., Simon Thelwall, Ph.D., Julia Stowe, Ph.D., Elise Tessier, M.Sc., Natalie Groves, M.Sc., Gavin Dabrera, M.B., B.S., F.F.P.H., Richard Myers, Ph.D., Colin N.J. Campbell, M.P.H., F.F.P.H., Gayatri Amirthalingam, M.F.P.H., Matt Edmunds, M.Sc., Maria Zambon, Ph.D., F.R.C.Path., Kevin E. Brown, M.R.C.P., F.R.C.Path., Susan Hopkins, F.R.C.P., F.F.P.H., Meera Chand, M.R.C.P., F.R.C.Path., and Mary Ramsay, M.B., B.S., F.F.P.H.
From Public Health England (J.L.B., N.A., C.G., E.G., R.S., S.T., J.S., E.T., N.G., G.D., R.M., C.N.J.C., G.A., M.E., M.Z., K.E.B., S.H., M.C., M.R.), the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Vaccines and Immunisation, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (J.L.B., N.A., C.N.J.C., G.A., K.E.B., M.R.), the NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Respiratory Infections, Imperial College London (J.L.B., M.Z.), and Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital NHS Trust (M.C.), London, and Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, University of Oxford, Oxford (S.H.) — all in the United Kingdom. Address reprint requests to Dr. Lopez Bernal at Public Health England, 61 Colindale Ave., London, NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom, or at jamie.lopezbernal2@phe.gov.uk.

 

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