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新出现的传染病——以史为鉴,继往开来
Emerging Infectious Diseases — Learning from the Past and Looking to the Future


Christopher Elias ... 传染病 呼吸系统疾病 • 2021.04.01
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20世纪初以来,高收入国家因传染病死亡的人数大幅减少。在美国,传染病死亡率从1900年的每10万人中约800人(占总死亡人数的近50%)下降至1950年的每10万人中50人(占总死亡人数的约6%)1

过去30年间,亚洲和撒哈拉以南非洲地区的低收入和中等收入国家(LMIC)也发生了类似转变。随着全球儿童免疫接种率提高至80%,这些国家5岁以下儿童的死亡率下降了50%以上。在此期间,全球孕产妇死亡率也下降了近50%,疟疾死亡率下降了60%,HIV感染率下降了40%以上。脊髓灰质炎病毒即将被消灭。





作者信息

Christopher Elias, M.D., M.P.H., John N. Nkengasong, Ph.D., and Firdausi Qadri, Ph.D.
From the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle (C.E.); the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (J.N.N.); and the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh (F.Q.).

 

参考文献

1. Hansen V, Oren E, Dennis LK, Brown HE. Infectious disease mortality trends in the United States, 1980-2014. JAMA 2016;316:2149-2151.

2. Ndow G, Ambe JR, Tomori O. Emerging infectious diseases: a historical and scientific review. Socio-cultural Dimensions of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Africa 2019;31-40.

3. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Global health risk framework: resilient and sustainable health systems to respond to global infectious disease outbreaks: workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2016 (https://doi.org/10.17226/21856. opens in new tab).

4. Institute of Medicine. Emerging viral diseases: the one health connection: workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015 (https://doi.org/10.17226/18975. opens in new tab).

5. Global Preparedness Monitoring Board. A world in disorder: Global Preparedness Monitoring Board annual report 2020. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2020 (https://apps.who.int/gpmb/assets/annual_report/GPMB_AR_2020_EN.pdf. opens in new tab).

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